Model LT-900 OPERATOR’S MANUAL
NIDEK CO., LTD. (Manufacturer) NIDEK CO., LTD (Tokyo Office)
NIDEK INCORPORATED (United States Agent) NIDEK SOCIETE ANONYME (Authorized Representative)
: 34-14, Maehama, Hiroishi-cho, Gamagori, Aichi 443-0038, Japan Telephone: (0533) 67-6611 Facsimile: (0533) 67-6610 : 6th Floor, Takahashi Bldg., No.2, 3-chome, Kanda-jinboucho Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0051, Japan Telephone: (03) 3288-0571 Facsimile: (03) 3288-0570 Telex: 2226647 NIDEK J : 47651 Westinghouse Drive, Fremont, California 94539, U. S. A. Telephone: (510) 226-5700 Facsimile: (510) 226-5750 : Europarc 13, rue Auguste Perret, 94042 CRETEIL, France Telephone: (01) 49 80 97 97 Facsimile: (01) 49 80 32 08
March 2006 41971-P902E Printed in JAPAN
BEFORE USE OR MAINTENANCE, READ THIS MANUAL. This Operator's Manual contains information necessary for the operation of the NIDEK SATELLITE TRACER Model LT-900. This manual provides operating procedures, cautions for safety, specifications, information on accessories and maintenance. IEC standards are applied in this manual. For correct use, this manual is needed. Especially, cautions for safety and operating procedures must be thoroughly understood before using the instrument. Keep this manual handy to verify use whenever necessary. If you encounter any problems or have questions about the instrument during use, please contact your authorized distributor.
Table of Contents
§1 INTRODUCTION ... Page 1-1 1.1 Outline of the Product ... 1-1 1.2 Symbol Information ... 1-1
§2 SAFETY ... 2-1 2.1 Cautions in Use ... 2-1 2.2 In Storage ... 2-2 2.3 In Transport ... 2-2 2.4 Installation ... 2-2 2.5 In Wiring ... 2-3 2.6 After Use ... 2-3 2.7 Maintenance and Check ... 2-4 2.8 Disposal ... 2-5 2.9 Labels ... 2-5
§3 UNPACKING ... 3-1 §4 CONFIGURATION ... 4-1 §5 OPERATION PROCEDURES ... 5-1 5.1 Operation Flow ... 5-1 5.2 Power-on ... 5-2 5.3 Tracings ... 5-3 5.3.1 Tracing frames ... 5-3 18.104.22.168 Tracing both rims ... 5-3 22.214.171.124 Tracing a single rim ... 5-4 126.96.36.199 Semi auto tracing ... 5-4 188.8.131.52 Tracing goggle type frames ... 5-5 5.3.2 Tracing patterns... 5-6 5.3.3 Tracing dummy lenses ... 5-7 5.3.4 Stopping tracing ... 5-9 184.108.40.206 Stopping frame tracing ... 5-9 220.127.116.11 Stopping pattern or dummy lens tracing ... 5-9 5.4 Treatment after Daily Use ... 5-10 5.5 Daily Checks ... 5-11 5.5.1 Daily checks before use ... 5-11 5.5.2 Daily checks after use ... 5-11 5.6 Keeping the Pattern Setting Unit in Storage ... 5-12
§6 MAINTENANCE ...Page 6-1 6.1 Calibration ... 6-1 6.2 Replacing Fuses ... 6-2 6.3 Cleaning Exterior ... 6-3 6.4 List of Consumable Articles ... 6-3
§7 SPECIFICATIONS ... 7-1 §8 ACCESSORIES ... 8-1 8.1 Standard Specifications ... 8-1 8.2 LAB Specifications ... 8-1 8.3 DVI Specifications ... 8-1
§9 CHECK LIST ... 9-1 INDEX ... A-1
§1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Outline of the Product NIDEK SATELLITE TRACER Model LT-900 is a frame tracer which measures the shape of eyeglass rims. It traces the rim of frames in three dimensions and measures dimensional circumference. Moreover, measurement of patterns and dummy lenses is available. The instrument is very easy to use simply by setting frames and pressing the switch. This instrument can be connected to various kinds of lens edging equipment such as in a laboratory to comprise a lens processing system.
1.2 Symbol Information Indicates that caution should be taken. It is necessary to refer to the Operator’s Manual before using the instrument. Indicates that the power is OFF. Indicates the fuse rating. Indicates that the instrument must be supplied only with alternating current. Indicates a dangerous part to which a high voltage is applied. Indicates the date of manufacture. Indicates the manufacturer. Indicates that this product shall be disposed of in a separate collection of electrical and electronic equipment in EU.
*1 The LT-900 interface specifications must be compatible with the connecting systems. • Standard specifications ⇒ Connecting to a personal computer or NIDEK’s grinding system • DVI specifications ⇒ Connecting to a personal computer • LAB specifications ⇒ Connecting to a LAB system
§2 SAFETY Signal Words are used to designate a degree or level of safety alerting. The definitions are as follows. CAUTION: Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury or a property damage accident. Some items described in CAUTION, however, could cause a serious accident depending on the situation. Due to their importance. Please follow the instructions below.
2.1 Cautions in Use CAUTION • Never disassemble nor touch the internal structure. An electric shock or a failure of the instrument may occur. • Never yank the power cord to disconnect it from the wall outlet, but hold the plug. This can damage the metal core of the cord and may result in a fire, a short circuit or an electric shock. • When the wire inside of the cable is exposed, the power turns ON or OFF by moving the power cord, or the cord or plug becomes too hot to hold it, disconnect the power cord from the wall outlet and contact your authorized distributor. It may cause an electric shock or a fire. • Do not crush or squeeze the power cord with heavy objects such as the instrument. Damage to the cord may result in a fire or an electric shock. • Be sure not to put stress on the stylus of the tracer. The stylus is easy to bend or break. • Every once in a while, clean the metal part of the power plug with a dry cloth. If a thick layer of dust settles on the metal part, it will become damp, and a short circuit or a fire may occur. • In the event that the instrument gives out smoke or a strange smell, etc., turn OFF the power and unplug the power cord. After the smoke is not coming out of the instrument any more, contact your authorized distributor. If the instrument which has this kind of abnormal condition, is used, a fire or an electric shock may occur. In case of fire, use a powdery (ABC) extinguisher.
2.2 In Storage CAUTION • Do not store the instrument where it may get wet or where poisonous gas or liquid exists. • Do not store the instrument in a place exposed to direct sunlight or where the temperature and humidity are high.
2.3 In Transport CAUTION • Use the specified packing materials to avoid physical shock when transporting. Excessive vibration or shock to the instrument may cause an instrument malfunction.
2.4 Installation CAUTION • Operate the instrument on a level and stable place without vibration and shock. If it is not used under these conditions, the accuracy of measurement may be affected. • Do not install the instrument where it is exposed to direct sunlight. • Install the instrument in the following environmental conditions. Use conditions Temperature: 5 - 40ºC Humidity: Relative humidity does not exceed 50% at the maximum temperature of 40ºC. Pressure: 700 - 1060 hPa • Install the instrument in an environment where pollutants such as corrosive gas, acid and salt do not exist. Corrosion or malfunction of the instrument may occur. • Install the instrument where the operation area specified on p. 2-4 is provided. • Never place the main body over the table top where a carpet is laid. The instrument is provided with the cooling fan in its lower part. The carpet may hinder cooling efficiency.
2.5 In Wiring CAUTION • Be sure to use a wall-outlet which meets the power specifications. If the line voltage is too high or low, the instrument may not give full performance. A malfunction or a fire also may occur. • Plug the power cord correctly until its pins are fully inserted into the socket. If the instrument is used with an insecure connection, a fire may occur. • Do not put many loads on one electrical outlet. Abnormal heat generation may occur at the outlet in conjunction with the other devices. • Be sure to ground the instrument. An electric shock or a fire may occur in the event of failure or electrical leakage. • When connecting the RS-232C cable etc., be sure to securely tighten the screw of the connector which has a fixing screw.
2.6 After Use CAUTION • If the instrument will not be used for a long time, unplug the power plug from the wall outlet. If a thick layer of dust settles on the pins of the plug, it will become damp, and a short circuit or a fire may occur. • Turn the power switch OFF and put the dust cover on when the instrument is not in use. If dust settles, it may affect the measurement accuracy or cause a malfunction.
2.7 Maintenance and Check CAUTION • Be sure to perform the initial inspection before use and finishing inspection after use. It is recommended to have an inspection every two years. The inspection should be performed by a service person. Contact NIDEK or your authorized distributor. • Be sure to keep enough space (see below.) for maintenance. Working in a tight place may cause an injury. • Be sure to use the specified fuses (T 0.5 A 250 V) for replacement. If not, a fire may occur. • Replace the fuses after turning OFF the instrument and disconnecting the power cord. If not, an electric shock may occur. • Never use an organic solvent such as paint thinner to clean the exterior of the instrument. This could damage the surface.
[Operation area/ Maintenance area]
Approx. 500 mm
Approx. 500 mm
Approx. 500 mm
Approx. 290 mm
Approx. 500 mm
Approx. 296 mm Approx. 1000 mm
2.8 Disposal NOTE • Follow local governing ordinances and recycling plans regarding disposal or recycling of device components. • When disposing of packing materials, sort them by material, and follow local governing ordinances and recycling plans.
2.9 Labels The following labels provide safety information about each part. <Front view>
/1&'. %100 (4'3 219'4
.6 8㨪 * 8#
/#'*#/#*+41+5*+%*1)#/#)14+ #+%*+,#2#0 /#&'+0,#2#0
§3 UNPACKING 1. Check that the following accessories are included in the carton. - Fuse - Standard frame - RS-232C cable - Dust cover
- Pattern setting unit - Standard pattern - Power cord (with converter plug) - Operator’s manual
2. Remove all packing materials from the tracer. 3. Place the tracer on a clean and level place where it will be used. 4. Carefully remove the foam insert from the frame tracing chamber. 5. Remove the packing tape from the tracing table, taking care not to damage the stylus.
§4 CONFIGURATION [Top view]
Rim clips Upper slider Stylus Rim clips
Pattern setting unit support
RS-232C connector (Only for STD specifications) Barcode connector
4-2 Lower slider Upper slider Frames are set between these sliders.
Inlet This is where the power cord is connected.
Rim clips The frame rims are held by the clips. Each upper and lower slider has two clips.
RS-232C interface connector As an external tracer, this connector is used for connecting LE-7070 LAB specifications, LE-7070SX LAB specifications, LE9000DX/EX, and ICE-9000NT etc.
Stylus Measures a frame shape by tracing its bevel groove.
Pattern setting unit support The pattern setting unit with a set pattern or a dummy lens is set on this support.
Starts a single-tracing of the right rim.
Starts both-tracing of the right and left rims.
Starts a single-tracing of the left rim.
This is where the barcode scanner (or numeric keypad) is connected. (except for STD specifications)
§5 OPERATION PROCEDURES In this section, mainly the tracing method is explained. For connecting systems and transferring data, see the manual of the connecting device or server software.
5.1 Operation Flow Power-on 5.3 Tracings → 5.3.1 Tracing frames (p. 5-3) → 18.104.22.168 Tracing both rims (p. 5-3) → 22.214.171.124 Tracing a single rim (p. 5-4) → 126.96.36.199 Semi auto tracing (p. 5-4) → 188.8.131.52 Tracing goggle type frames (p. 5-5) → 5.3.2 Tracing patterns (p. 5-6) → 5.3.3 Tracing dummy lenses (p. 5-7) → 5.3.4 Stopping tracing (p. 5-9) → 184.108.40.206 Stopping frame tracing (p. 5-9) → 220.127.116.11 Stopping pattern or dummy lens tracing (p. 5-9)
Transferring data Power-off
5.2 Power-on 1. Check the connection of the interface cable (RS-232C cable). 2. Connect the power cord to the inlet. 3. Connect the plug of the power cord to the wall outlet.
CAUTION • Prongs of the plug must be fully inserted into the outlet. Incomplete connection may cause a fire. • Be sure to use an outlet which meets the power specifications. If the line voltage is too high or low, the instrument may not give full performance. A malfunction or a fire may also occur. • Do not put many loads on one electrical outlet. Other devices may catch fire due to abnormally high temperatures. • Be sure to ground the instrument. An electric shock or a fire may occur in the event of failure or electrical leakage.
4. Power ON the system. Turn ON the power switch. Switching to the OFF side (
) turns the power off.
5.3 Tracings 5.3.1 Tracing frames 18.104.22.168 Tracing both rims This is the procedure to measure the outline of both rims as well as the FPD (Frame pupil distance). 1. Set frames into the tracing unit. 1) Set the top of the frames. Draw the lower slider and set the frame top between the rim clips on the upper slider. Rim clips 2) Set the bottom of the frames. Slowly release the lower slider, placing the frame bottom between the rim clips on the lower slider. Lower slider
3) Bring the frames to the center of the tracer. 2. Start tracing both rims. Press
Tracing is complete when the frames are released. 3. Draw the lower slider and take out the frames.
22.214.171.124 Tracing a single rim This is the procedure to trace one of the frame rims. 1. Set frames into the tracing unit. See Step 1. of “126.96.36.199 Tracing both rims” (p. 5-3). 2. Press either or . For tracing the rim for the left eye ⇒ Press For tracing the rim for the right eye ⇒ Press
NOTE • FPD (frame pupil distance) cannot be measured at single rim tracing.
188.8.131.52 Semi auto tracing This is the procedure to bring the stylus into the bevel groove of the frame by hand when the stylus cannot be set in the groove automatically. 1. Set frames into the tracing unit. See Step 1. of “184.108.40.206 Tracing both rims” (p. 5-3). *1 2. Press for more than three seconds. The stylus will move and stop at the tracing start position.
3. Manually set the stylus into the groove. 4. Start tracing. Press . When tracing is complete for one rim, the stylus will move to the other rim and stop at the tracing start position. 5. Trace the other rim in the same manner as Steps 3. and 4.
*1 To trace a single rim, press
for more than three seconds.
220.127.116.11 Tracing goggle type frames When tracing sharply curved frames such as goggles, the stylus may come off the bevel groove. In such a case, set only one rim between the rim clips and hold the frame temple of the other side during tracing. The following only describes the procedure for the right rim since either rim can be traced in the same way. 1. Set the rim for the right eye horizontally to the tracing unit. • Do not set the left rim. • Hold the left temple of the frame to keep the right rim horizontal.
2. Start tracing. Press .
Non-tracing side Hold manually. Do not set between the rim clips.
Tracing side Set the rim horizontally between the rim clips.
NOTE • Though the rim clips hold the right rim securely, do not take your hand off the temple. If the frame moves during tracing, precise measurement cannot be made.
3. Take out the frames from the tracing unit.
NOTE • FPD (Frame pupil distance) cannot be measured when tracing goggle type frames.
5.3.2 Tracing patterns
1. Set a pattern onto the pattern setting unit. 1) Set a pattern while pressing the white button on the pattern setting unit. Make sure that the pattern is pushed as far as it will go. Fit the pattern as the following figure shows.
Pattern setting unit For left pattern Nasal side
For right pattern Temporal side
2) Release the white button to lock the pattern.
2. Set the pattern setting unit. Draw the lower slider and set the pattern setting unit onto the pattern setting unit support. Fit the pins of the pattern setting unit to the two circular holes on the pattern setting unit support. The pattern setting unit is fixed to the pattern setting unit support by magnet. Pattern setting unit
3. Press either or . For tracing the right pattern ⇒ Press For tracing the left pattern ⇒ Press
The tracing pin will come out, and then tracing will start.
Pattern tracing pin
5-7 4. When tracing is completed, take off the pattern setting unit. When tracing is complete, the tracing pin will be automatically stored. It is easy to remove the unit from the left side.
NOTE • FPD (Frame pupil distance) cannot be measured when tracing patterns.
5.3.3 Tracing dummy lenses 1. Block the convex side of a dummy lens with a lens cup. 1) Mark the estimated center of a dummy lens with a lensmeter. Set the dummy lenses mounted in the frames and make sure that the frames are in contact with the lens table to mark the lenses.
2) Affix the provided double-coated adhesive pad on a lens cup. lens cup
3) Block the convex side of the dummy lens with the lens cup, using a centering device. Align the marks on the dummy lens to the direction of the groove on the lens cup to block it. Convex side of dummy lens
5-8 2. Set the lens cup onto the pattern setting unit. Fit the lens cup while pressing the white button of the pattern setting unit.
For left-eye lenses Temporal side
For right-eye lenses Nasal side
Pattern setting unit
3. Set the pattern setting unit. Draw the lower slider and set the pattern setting unit onto the pattern setting unit support. Fit the pins of the pattern setting unit to the two circular holes on the pattern setting unit support. The pattern setting unit is fixed to the pattern setting unit support by magnet. 4. Press either or . For tracing the right-eye lens ⇒ Press For tracing the left-eye lens ⇒ Press
Pattern setting unit
The tracing pin will come out, and then tracing will start.
NOTE • Note that the switch to be pressed is the opposite of that pressed in pattern tracing.
5. When tracing is completed, take off the pattern setting unit. When tracing is complete, the tracing pin will be automatically stored. It is easy to remove the unit from the left side.
NOTE • FPD (frame pupil distance) cannot be measured when tracing dummy lenses.
5.3.4 Stopping tracing To stop tracing, follow the instructions below.
18.104.22.168 Stopping frame tracing 1. Press . The stylus will return to its original position and the frames will be released.
22.214.171.124 Stopping pattern or dummy lens tracing 1. Press
2. Take off the pattern setting unit. The pattern tracing pin will be stored.
5 - 10
5.4 Treatment after Daily Use 1. Turn OFF (
) the power switch.
2. Perform after-use daily checks. See “5.5.2 Daily checks after use” (p. 5-11). 3. Put the attached dust cover over the instrument.
CAUTION • If the instrument is not used for a long time, disconnect the power plug from the wall outlet. If dust settles on the plug, moisture may be absorbed and a short-circuit or a fire may occur.
NOTE • When the instrument is not in use, turn OFF the power and put the dust cover on. If dust etc. settles on the instrument, it may affect measurement accuracy.
5 - 11
5.5 Daily Checks 5.5.1 Daily checks before use Check the followings before each use of the day. Besides, if the instrument is not used every day, check the following every time before use. It is recommended to provide a check list to make sure everything is checked. A. Is there any deformation or stain which may be a damage in use? B. It is recommended to perform calibration. See “6.1 Calibration”.
5.5.2 Daily checks after use Check the following after use each day. It is recommended to provide a check list to make sure everything is checked. A. Is the power turned OFF? B. Is there any stain on, or damage to, the main body? C. Is there any stain on, damage to, or loss of the pattern setting unit, standard pattern, or standard frame? D. Is the dust cover on?
5 - 12
5.6 Keeping the Pattern Setting Unit in Storage Keep the pattern setting unit when it is not in use in a place where it is unlikely to be lost or scratched; it is recommended to attach the provided holder for the pattern setting unit to a side cover of the LT-900 on the left or right and to set the pattern setting unit to the holder.
Holder for the pattern setting unit
Pattern setting unit
<Attaching the holder for the pattern setting unit> The pictures illustrate how to attach the holder to the right side of the LT-900; the same procedure can be followed for attaching the holder to the left side of the LT-900. 1. Unscrew two countersunk head screws at the bottom of the LT-900.
Countersunk head screws
2. Attach the provided holder for the pattern setting unit with the screws unscrewed in Step 1.
Holder for pattern setting unit
§6 MAINTENANCE 6.1 Calibration Using the attached standard frame and standard pattern, perform calibration of the tracer. 1. Turn ON the power. 2. After the initialization is finished, put the system into the calibration mode. 1) Press while pressing . 2) Release
3) Release . The electronic beeper will sound and the lamp of will blink. 3. Set the attached standard frame ( 45). Put the face with number inscriptions up and set it so that the rim clips fit into the groove of the standard frame.
4. Press . Auto calibration (frame) will be performed. Auto calibration will finish after several tracings. The electronic beeper will sound and the system will exit from the calibration mode. Then, the standard frames will be released. Standard frame (
5. Put the system into the calibration mode. 1) Press while pressing . 2) Release
3) Release . The electronic beeper will sound and the lamp of
6-2 6. Take off the standard frame and set the attached standard pattern. See “5.3.2 Tracing patterns Step 1 - 2)”. 7. Press . Auto calibration (pattern) will be performed. When auto calibration is complete, the electronic beeper will sound and the system will exit from the calibration mode. Then, the system will go back to the normal mode. 8. Take off the standard pattern.
6.2 Replacing Fuses If the instrument can not be activated though the power switch is turned ON, the fuses may be blown out. Replace the fuses with new ones.
CAUTION • Be sure to turn OFF the power switch and pull out the power cable before replacing the fuses. You may get an electrical shock. • Use the specified fuses only. (T0.5A 250V) Fuses other than the specified ones may cause a fire.
1. Turn OFF (
) the power switch and disconnect the power cable from the wall outlet.
2. Disconnect the power cable from the inlet. 3. Remove the fuse holder under the inlet. Pull out the fuse holder by pressing the clip. 4. Remove the old fuses from the holder and replace them with new ones. 5. Push the fuse holders into the body as before.
Clip Fuse holder
6.3 Cleaning Exterior When the exterior of the instrument such as the covers or panels become dirty, wipe them with a soft cloth. For stubborn dirt, immerse a cloth in a neutral detergent, wring it well, and wipe the area. Wipe off with a dry cloth to finish.
CAUTION • Never use an organic solvent such as paint thinner. This could dissolve the surface.
6.4 List of Consumable Articles Article
§7 SPECIFICATIONS Tracing method
: 3-D binocular automatic tracing
: Frame R9 - R46 mm (radius from measurement center) (vertically up to max. 30 mm from center) Pattern R12 - R46 (radius from measurement center) (vertically up to min. 10 mm from center)
: Lens shape FPD 3-D circumference (2-D circumference at pattern tracing and dummy lens tracing) Frame front curvature angle Frame curvature
: 1000 points
: One-touch automatic clamping
: RS-232C is built in.
: 296 (W) × 290 (D) × 148 (H) mm
: Approx. 8 kg (only main body)
: AC 100 - 120/230 V 50/60 Hz (Main supply voltage fluctuation should not exceed ±10% of the nominal voltage.)
: 50 VA
Environmental condition (In transference/storage)
Environmental condition (In usage)
: Temperature…–25 - 70 ºC : Humidity…10 - 100 % : Pressure…700 - 1060 hPa : Setting location…Indoor : Temperature…5 - 40 ºC : Humidity…Relative humidity does not exceed 50 % at a maximum temperature of 40 ºC. : Pressure…700 - 1060 hPa : Altitude…1000 m or less at sea level
Transient overvoltages according to installation categories (OVERVOLTAGE CATEGORIES) : Pollution degree
: 2 (IEC 60664)
§8 ACCESSORIES 8.1 Standard Specifications Pattern setting unit ... 1 pc. Spare fuse ... 2 pcs. Standard pattern ... 1 pc. Standard frame ... 1 pc. Power cord ... 1 pc. RS-232C cable ... 1 pc. Dust cover ... 1 pc. Operator’s manual ... 1 pc.
8.2 LAB Specifications * The following are included in addition to STD accessories. Barcode scanner ... 1 pc. RS-232C/RS-485 converter ... 1 pc.
8.3 DVI Specifications * The following are included in addition to STD accessories. Barcode scanner (for DVI B type) ... 1 pc. Numeric keypad (for DVI T type) ... 1 pc.
§9 CHECK LIST After the installation, check if the instrument is intalled correctly and works normally. Mark in “ ” of checked items as follows. No problem:
, Adjustment effect:
, No check (unnecessary):
Check items Check of installation conditions
Check of function
Product name Person in charge of installation
c Cautions on place of installation
p. 2-2 to 2-3
c Cautions on connection to power source
p. 2-3, 7-1
c Ground connection
p. 2-3, 7-1
c Cable connection for external devices (option)
c Function of switch: Power switch
c Function of switch: Main tracing key
p. 5-3, 5-4, 5-9
c Function of switch: Left tracing key
p. 5-4, 5-6, 5-8
c Function of switch: Right tracing key
p. 5-4, 5-5, 5-6, 5-8
c Function for tracing: Frames
p. 5-3 to 5-5, 5-9
c Function for tracing: Patterns
p. 5-6 to 5-7, 5-9
c Function for tracing: Dummy lenses
p. 5-7 to 5-8, 5-9
p. 6-1 to 6-2
Installation date Signature
INDEX B Barcode scanner ... 4-2 C Calibration ... 6-1 I In a case that the stylus cannot be set in the groove automatically ... 5-4 P Pattern tracing pin ... 5-6, 5-8, 5-9 Pattern tracing unit... 5-6 Pattern tracing unit support... 4-2 R Replacing fuses ... 6-2 Rim clips ... 4-2 S Semiauto tracing ... 5-4 Stylus ... 4-2 T Tracing both rims ... 5-3 Tracing dummy lenses ... 5-7 Tracing frames ... 5-3 Tracing goggle type frames... 5-5 Tracing patterns ... 5-6 Tracing a single rim ... 5-4 Tracing sharply curved frames ... 5-5